Dapo Akande is a University Lecturer in Public International Law in the Oxford Law Faculty and Co-Director of the Oxford Institute for Ethics, Law and Armed Conflict (ELAC). He is currently the Convener of the Oxford Law Faculty’s Public International Law Group. In 2008/09 he was Visiting Associate Professor and Robina Foundation International Fellow at Yale Law School. In 2002 and 2009, he was Visiting Professor at the University of Miami School of Law. From 1998 to 2000, he was a Lecturer in Law at the University of Nottingham School of Law and from 2000 to 2004 he was a Lecturer in Law at the University of Durham. Professor Akande has advised States and international organizations on matters of international law. He has advised and assisted counsel or provided expert opinions in cases before the International Court of Justice, the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea, international arbitral tribunals, WTO and NAFTA Dispute Settlement Panels as well as cases in England and the United States of America. He has acted as Consultant for the African Union on the International Criminal Court and on the law relating to terrorism.
Cecile Aptel is Associate Professor of International Law at the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, Tufts University. Previously, she served at the UN international tribunals for Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia (1995–2005), helped establish the War Crimes Chamber of the State Court of Bosnia-Herzegovina (2005) and the Special Tribunal for Lebanon (2006). She has participated in international investigations of international crimes, gross human rights violations and terrorism, including at the UN International Independent Investigation Commission in Lebanon. Prof. Aptel has advised on rule of law and judicial reform in several countries. She created and directed the International Center for Transitional Justice’s program on children (2008-2010) and was awarded the 2010-2011 Jennings Randolph Senior Fellowship by the United States Institute of Peace. Currently she is the Co-Chair of the International Bar Association’s War Crimes Committee. She has held that role since 2008. Her research focuses upon international criminal law, transitional justice and child rights.
Dr. Roberta Arnold studied at the Universities of Bern, Nottingham, Sheffield and Tel Aviv. Between 2002 and 2005 she worked as a legal adviser within the Staff of the Chief of the Armed Forces at the Swiss Department of Defence. She has trained as a barrister and worked as a commissioner in the Special Federal Commission for the Admission of Objectors of Conscience to the Civil Service. Between December 2008 and September 2010, she served in the Swiss Defence Department as a political adviser on Arms Control and Disarmament Policy issues, prior to joining part-time as a lawyer in the Office of the Federal Attorney General (International Judicial Assistance Division and Competence Centre for International Criminal Law). Since January 2012, she has worked part-time as a research assistant to the Chair for Strategic Studies of the Swiss Military Academy (ETH Zurich). In the Swiss Armed Forces, she holds the rank of specialist officer (Capt.), with the function of examining magistrate of the Swiss Military Justice. Dr. Arnold has published extensively in the areas of international criminal law and international humanitarian law. Her doctoral work at the University of Bern entitled The ICC as a new instrument for the repression of terrorism was published by Transnational Publishers (New York). The book was given Honorable Mention by the Francis Lieber Society (ASIL) and awarded the Walther Hug Prize as one of the best Ph.D.s in Switzerland in 2004. She currently serves as the Swiss correspondent of the Review of the International Society for Military Law and the Law of War.
Ms. Sareta Ashraph specializes in international humanitarian and human rights law. She was most recently the Senior Analyst in the UN Commission of Inquiry into Libya. The Commission was charged with investigating all violations of international law in Libya, focusing on the period following the rise of the protests there in mid-February 2011. Before her work on Libya, Sareta was based in The Hague as the Legal Adviser to the Office of the Public Counsel for Defense (OPCD) in the International Criminal Court, working predominantly on the Kenya post-election violence cases. In 2009, she worked as a Legal Consultant to the UN Fact-Finding Mission on the Gaza Conflict (the Goldstone Inquiry). From 2004 to 2009, Sareta was based in Sierra Leone as Co-Counsel on the defense team representing Issa Sesay (interim Leader of the Revolutionary United Front) before the Special Court for Sierra Leone. She is a Deployable Civilian Expert (Justice Sector) with DFID and is also an ad hoc consultant to the Open Society Justice Initiative. Sareta is called to the Bar of the England and Wales and the Bar of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. She is a barrister attached to Garden Court Chambers in London.
Ilias Bantekas LL.B. (Athens), LL.M. (Liverpool), Ph.D. (Liverpool), Dip. Theology (Cambridge) is Professor of International Law at Brunel University School of Law, U.K. and Senior Fellow at the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies (IALS), University of London. He has held full time/visiting academic posts at Harvard, Miami, Cleveland State, Trier, School of Oriental and African Studies, Westminster and others. He has advised governments, international organizations, NGOs and private clients in most fields of international law and human rights. His publication include: International Criminal Law (Hart, 4th edition, 2010); International Human Rights Law (Cambridge University Press, 2012); Trust Funds Under International Law: Trustee Obligations of the UN and International Development Banks (TMC Asser & Cambridge University Press, 2009).
Professor Elena Baylis studies the interactions between international, national, and sub-national legal institutions and communities. In an ongoing series of articles, she has explored the international legal community’s interventions in post-conflict states, focusing on the roles of transnational networks and of national and parallel courts. She has also written several articles on U.S. national security issues and on conflict resolution mechanisms aimed at addressing the concerns of minority groups. Presently, Professor Baylis is carrying out a qualitative empirical study of the attorneys, human right officers, and others who undertake post-conflict justice work on behalf of the international community. She holds a Bachelor of Arts from the University of Oregon and a J.D. from Yale Law School.
Ronald A. Brand is the Chancellor Mark A. Nordenberg University Professor and Director of the Center for International Legal Education at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. He has been a Fulbright Scholar at the Universiteit Brussel, a Research Scholar at the Institute for Advanced Studies at the University of Bologna, and a visiting professor at the University of Augsburg. He has lectured globally on international trade and business law at universities. He has received both the Chancellor’s Distinguished Teaching Award, a University‑wide honor, and the Law School’s Excellence‑in‑Teaching Award. He has also received the Chancellor’s Distinguished Public Service Award. Brand represented the United States at Special Commissions and the Diplomatic Conference of The Hague Conference on Private International Law that produced the 2005 Convention on Choice of Court Agreements.
Linda Carter is a Professor of Law and Director of the Legal Infrastructure and International Justice Institute, University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law, Sacramento, California (U.S.A.). From 1978 to 1981, she was an attorney in the honors program of the Civil Rights Division of the United States Department of Justice in Washington, D.C., where she litigated voting, housing, and education discrimination cases. From 1981 to 1985, she was an attorney with the Legal Defender Association in Salt Lake City, Utah, where she represented indigent criminal defendants on misdemeanor and felony charges. Prof. Carter has lectured on or researched international criminal law issues in multiple venues. For instance, in 2005, she studied the Gacaca trials in Rwanda and conducted a workshop in Cambodia. In 2007, she served as a Visiting Professional in the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Court in The Hague and as a legal researcher at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Since 2003, she has worked with Richard Goldstone in the Brandeis Institute for International Judges, which convenes judges from international tribunals. Prof. Carter has also participated in two West African Colloquia for judges of the supreme courts in West Africa and she taught in Senegal in the spring of 2009 as a Fulbright Senior Specialist. She has also taught in the LL.M. program sponsored by the UN Interregional Crime and Justice Research Institute in Turin, Italy. She is a member of numerous professional organizations, including election to the American Law Institute.
Theresa Clark is an Associate Professor at Villanova University School of Law, where she has taught since 2007. Professor Clark received her J.D. from Washington University, and through the Fulbright Program, earned a Master’s in Human Rights and Democratization jointly from Ruhr-Universitat, Universidad de Duesto, Universita degli studi di Padova, and Universita Ca Foscari. Moreover, as a Legomsky-Dagen Fellow, she studied public international law at The Hague Academy of International Law. Her scholarly interests focus on transitional justice, international criminal law, international human rights, and legal analysis, writing, and oral advocacy.
Nancy Combs is Vice Dean of William & Mary Law School, where she is also Director of the Human Security Law Program and the Madrid Study Abroad Program. A graduate of the University of California at Berkeley School of Law (Boalt Hall), Professor Combs was awarded the Thelin Marrin prize for graduating first in her class, and she served as an Articles Editor on the California Law Review. Professor Combs received her B.A., in philosophy, summa cum laude, from the University of Portland and her Ph.D. from Leiden University in December 2005. After law school, Professor Combs served as a law clerk to Judge Diarmuid O’Scannlain on the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and to Justice Anthony Kennedy on the United States Supreme Court. Before joining academia, Professor Combs served as legal advisor at the Iran-United States Claims Tribunal in The Hague, The Netherlands. She has written and published two books and numerous articles and essays appearing in the University of Pennsylvania Law Review, the Vanderbilt Law Review, the Hastings Law Journal, the Harvard International Law Journal, and the Chicago Journal of International Law. She currently serves as member of the International Expert Framework.
Mary Crossley is Dean and a Professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. Dean Crossley’s scholarship has focused on issues of inequality in the financing and delivery of health care, encompassing topics ranging from an exploration of potential legal remedies for physician bias in medical treatment, to an examination of how recent trends in health insurance coverage function to discriminate against unhealthy people, to a consideration of how assisted reproductive technologies implicate equality concerns. Her scholarly interests are reflected in a seminar that she has developed on Health Care & Civil Rights, and she has also taught courses in Health Law, Bioethics & Law, Family Law, Torts, and Contracts. Immediately prior to coming to Pitt Law in 2005, Crossley was the Florida Bar Health Law Section Professor of Law at Florida State University and before that she was on the faculty at the University of California, Hastings College of the Law, including two years of service as Associate Academic Dean. Before beginning to teach, she practiced corporate and health care law in San Francisco and New Haven, and clerked for Judge Harry Wellford on the Sixth Circuit Court of Appeals.
Vivian Curran is a Professor of Law at the University of Pittsburgh, where she specializes in comparative law and founded the Law School’s Languages for Lawyers program. She is an elected member of the American Law Institute, the International Academy of Comparative Law, and is a past Secretary of the American Society of Comparative Law. In 2004, she was appointed by the State Department as United States member of the Austrian General Settlement Fund Committee to adjudicate compensation claims for Nazi-era property expropriations in Austria. The Austrian government decorated her for her work with the große goldene Ehrenzeichen in 2007. A native speaker of both French and English, Curran is author, editor and translator of several books and regularly publishes in English and French in American, French and Canadian law reviews, journals and books.
A former legal officer at the UN International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Professor Shahram Dana blends practical experience and academic expertise in his scholarship and in the classroom. His research focuses on the law and politics of international criminal justice mechanisms in shaping world order and international law. Professor Dana’s scholarship on sentencing perpetrators of atrocity crimes has been recognized by experts as one of the best articles on the topic. His other publications have addressed the normative foundations of principles of criminal law in international law, the sentencing jurisprudence of international tribunals, the crime of genocide, the law of contempt in international criminal courts, and role of an international prosecutor. Professor Dana recently has presented his research at Yale Law School, University of North Dakota, and UCLA at the American Society of International Law’s Inaugural Research Forum. A lecturer at conferences around the globe, Professor Dana was selected by The Hague Forum for Judicial Expertise to train high-level judges, prosecutors, and government officials from various countries on crimes against humanity, human rights, and the International Criminal Court. He is the Co-Chair of ASIL’s International Criminal Law Interest Group.
Professor Margaret deGuzman teaches criminal law, international criminal law, and transitional justice. She has authored a number of publications on such issues as the definition of crimes against humanity, the role of case and situational gravity in the legitimacy of the International Criminal Court (ICC), and the theoretical underpinning of selection decisions at the ICC. She is currently participating in an international expert group drafting general rules and principles of international criminal procedure. Professor deGuzman is a graduate of Yale Law School, the Fletcher School of Law & Diplomacy, and Georgetown University’s School of Foreign Service. She was a Fulbright Scholar in Senegal and is currently a Ph.D. candidate at the Irish Center for Human Rights of the National University of Ireland. Before joining the Temple faculty, Professor deGuzman clerked on the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals and practiced law in San Francisco for six years, specializing in criminal defense. She also served as a legal advisor to the Senegal delegation at the Rome Conference on the International Criminal Court and as a law clerk in the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia.
Amy DiBella currently practices in the area of criminal defense in Pittsburgh. She holds a B.A. in Latin American Hemispheric Studies (summa cum laude) from George Washington University, a J.D. (cum laude and Order of the Coif) from the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, where she was awarded the Faculty Award for Excellence in Legal Scholarship for her paper The Right to Confrontation; Reconciling the Constitution with International Criminal Proceedings and an LL.M. in the International Law of Human Rights and Criminal Justice from Utrecht University in The Netherlands. She previously worked as an intern in the Office of Public Counsel for Defense, International Criminal Court.
Viviane Dittrich currently is a postgraduate research student in the Department of International Relations at the London School of Economics and Political Science (LSE). Her research focuses on international institutions, specifically international criminal tribunals, and post-conflict justice and peace. She is examining the institutional developments of the ad hoc tribunals towards completion in light of their imminent closure and legacy. Viviane received an MSc in International Relations from the LSE and a Master’s degree from Sciences Po Paris (Double Degree). During her undergraduate studies at Sciences Po Paris in Nancy (France), she also spent one year studying at Wellesley College (Massachusetts, USA). At present, she is working as a teaching assistant in the Department of International Relations at the LSE and, previously, has worked as a temporary staff member at the Institute of International Education in Washington, D.C., teaching assistant at Wellesley College and project member of Afric@ction, a development aid project in Niamey (Niger).
Mark Drumbl is the Class of 1975 Alumni Professor at Washington & Lee University, School of Law, where he also serves as Director of the Transnational Law Institute. He has held visiting appointments on a number of law faculties, including Oxford, Paris II (Panthéon-Assas), Trinity College-Dublin, Melbourne, and Ottawa. He has published on public international law, international criminal law, and transitional justice, including his forthcoming book Reimagining Child Soldiers in International Law and Policy (Oxford University Press, 2012). His first book Atrocity, Punishment, and International Law (Cambridge University Press, 2007) has been widely reviewed, receiving scholarly excellence commendations from the International Association of Criminal Law and the American Society of International Law. Drumbl has served as defense counsel in Rwandan domestic genocide trials; as an expert in U.S. courts; and has taught international law in Pakistan, Finland, Uganda, Australia, Argentina, The Netherlands, Italy, and Brazil. He holds degrees in law and politics from McGill University, University of Toronto, and Columbia University.
Jennifer Easterday is a Ph.D. Researcher for the ‘Jus Post Bellum’ project at the Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies, University of Leiden. She is also a consultant trial monitor for Open Society Justice Initiative, monitoring the Katanga and Ngudjolo trial before the ICC. She previously worked for International Criminal Law Services, an NGO based in The Hague, on a variety of international criminal law projects including drafting training materials tailored to the Balkans region as part of any OSCE/ODIHR – ICTY legacy project, international criminal law capacity building projects in Uganda and Rwanda, and other projects related to international criminal justice. She has also worked as a Senior Researcher and Trial Monitor for the UC Berkeley War Crimes Studies Center, researching and monitoring the Special Court for Sierra Leone trial of Charles Taylor and developing projects related to trial monitoring at other international and hybrid tribunals. She has experience at the ICTY and with other international criminal law and human rights NGOs in the United States and Latin America. She received her J.D. from the University of California, Berkeley School of Law and is a member of the California State Bar.
Mark Ellis is the Executive Director of the International Bar Association (IBA), the foremost international organization of bar associations, law firms and individual lawyers in the world. Before joining the IBA, he spent ten years as the first Executive Director of the Central European and Eurasian Law Initiative (CEELI). Providing technical legal assistance to twenty-eight countries in Central Europe and the former Soviet Union, and to the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in The Hague. CEELI remains the most extensive international pro bono legal assistance project ever undertaken by the US legal community. Twice a Fulbright Scholar at the Economic Institute in Zagreb, Croatia, he earned his J.D. and B.S. (Economics) degrees from Florida State University and his Ph.D. in international criminal law from King’s College, London. He served as Legal Advisor to the Independent International Commission on Kosovo, chaired by Justice Richard J. Goldstone and was appointed by OSCE to advise on the creation of Serbia’s War Crimes Tribunal. He was involved with the Iraqi High Tribunal and is presently a member of the Disciplinary Advisory Panel to the Defense Counsel for the ICTY and ICTR. A speaker and media commentator, he appears regularly on CNN International, Al Jazeera, and BBC.
Stuart Ford’s academic interests are in international criminal law and international criminal courts. He has published articles on the International Criminal Court, the responsibility to protect doctrine, crimes against humanity, and genocide. His current work explores the cost and value of international criminal tribunals. He teaches Civil Procedure, International Organizations, and International Criminal Law at the John Marshall Law School in Chicago. Prior to joining John Marshall, Professor Ford worked as an Assistant Prosecutor at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC), an international criminal tribunal that was jointly established by the Royal Government of Cambodia and the UN to prosecute senior leaders of the Khmer Rouge for atrocities committed in Cambodia between 1975 and 1979. He participated in the selection of crime sites and suspects for investigation, conducted preliminary investigations, and participated in the co-investigating judges’ investigations. In addition, he represented the Co-Prosecutors during the trial of Kaing Guek Eav, alias “Duch,” the first person to be tried by the ECCC.
Micaela Frulli is currently Associate Professor of International Law at the University of Florence, Italy. She received her Ph. D. in International Law at the University “Federico II” of Naples (2000). She was a Jean Monnet Fellow (2001-2002) at the Law Department of the European University Institute (2001-2002). She was also a Marie Curie Fellow (2010) at the EUI, sponsored by the European Union, with a project on the criminalization of attacks against cultural heritage and the impact of international criminal law on the protection of cultural property. Dr. Frulli has done extensive research in public international law, international criminal law, the law of international organizations, human rights law. In recent years she has focused on the following topics: Immunities of State officials suspected of International Crimes, State Immunity and Human Rights, Private Military Companies: Issues of Accountability. She has published books (as author and editor) and essays, articles and book chapters in Italian, English and French. Her most recent publications include articles in the European Journal of International Law, The Journal of International Criminal Justice and The Oxford Companion to International Criminal Justice (edited by A.Cassese).
Kenneth Gallant is a Professor of Law at the University of Arkansas Little Rock. Previously, he was at the University of Idaho, where he directed the clinic and taught on the faculty. Before entering teaching, he served first as a prosecutor and later as Attorney-in-charge for Special Litigation with the Office of the District Attorney of Philadelphia. He served as a law clerk to the late Judge Samuel J. Roberts of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania and Judge Louis H. Pollak of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania. Professor Gallant teaches Criminal Law, International Law, Conflict of Laws and Lawyering Skills. He has published extensively in the area of international law. His most recent work is a book, The Principle of Legality in International and Comparative Criminal Law (Cambridge University Press, 2009).
Dr. Lansana Gberie is a Sierra Leonean academic and writer based in New York. He was Senior Researcher with the Africa Conflict Prevention Programme of Institute for Security Studies (ISS) in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Before that, he was Senior Research Fellow at the Kofi Annan International Peacekeeping Training Centre in Accra, Ghana. An academic and journalist, Mr. Gberie is the author of A Dirty War in West Africa: The RUF and the Destruction of Sierra Leone (Indiana University Press, 2005). He was awarded the ‘Outstanding Research Award’ by the Canadian government body International Development Research Center in 2002 for his work with Partnership Africa Canada on the Human Security and International Diamond Trade project. Mr. Gberie holds a Ph.D. in history from VU University in the Netherlands.
Annie Gell, Esq. is the Sandler Fellow in the International Justice Division of Human Rights Watch. She is a graduate of Columbia College and Columbia University School of Law, and has worked and conducted research in India, Cambodia, Liberia, Sierra Leone, and Haiti. Prior to joining Human Rights Watch, Ms. Gell was the coordinator of the Rape Accountability and Prevention Project at the Bureau des Avocats Internationaux (BAI) in Port au Prince, Haiti. She is the author of the forthcoming Human Rights Watch report, “Even a ‘Big Man’ Must Face Justice”: Lessons from the Trial of Charles Taylor at the Special Court for Sierra Leone.
Haider Ala Hamoudi is an Assistant Professor of Law at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. Professor Hamoudi received his B.Sc. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1993, with a double major in Physics and Humanities with a Near Eastern Studies Concentration. He was both a member of the Physics Honor Society, Sigma Pi Sigma, and a Burchard Scholar for Excellence in the Humanities and Social Sciences. In 1996, he received his J.D. from Columbia Law School, where he was a Harlan Fiske Stone Scholar. After graduating, he served as a law clerk to the Honorable Constance Baker Motley in the Southern District of New York and then worked as an Associate at the law firm of Debevoise & Plimpton until 2003. Professor Hamoudi’s scholarship focuses on Middle Eastern and Islamic Law, particularly, but not exclusively, as it pertains to matters of commerce. Professor Hamoudi spent most of 2009 in Baghdad advising the Constitutional Review Committee of the Iraqi legislature, responsible for developing critical amendments to the Iraq Constitution deemed necessary for Iraqi national reconciliation, on behalf of the United States Embassy in Baghdad.
David Harris is a Professor and Associate Dean for Research at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. David studies, writes and teaches about police behavior and regulation, law enforcement, and national security issues and the law. Professor Harris is the leading national authority on racial profiling. His 2002 book, Profiles in Injustice: Why Racial Profiling Cannot Work, and his scholarly articles in the field of traffic stops of minority motorists and stops and frisks, influenced the national debate on profiling and related topics. His work led to federal efforts to address the practice and to legislation and voluntary efforts in over half the states and hundreds of police departments. He has testified three times in the U.S. Senate and before many state legislative bodies on profiling and related issues. He has appeared on The Today Show, Dateline NBC, National Public Radio. In 1996, Professor Harris served as a member of the Civil Liberties Advisory Board to the White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Before he began teaching in 1990, Professor Harris was a public defender, a litigator at a law firm in Philadelphia, and law clerk to Federal Judge Walter K. Stapleton in Wilmington, Delaware.
Bernard J. Hibbitts is a Professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. He is publisher & Editor-in-Chief of JURIST, the law student-powered legal news service he created at Pitt Law in 1996 that has since won multiple awards and accolades, including a 2006 Webby Award. Trained as a legal historian, his teaching and scholarship focus on the history of lawyering and the historical and contemporary roles and responsibilities of lawyers as public policy makers. Professor Hibbitts attended law school at England’s Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar after taking undergraduate and graduate degrees in Canada in political science and international relations. He later obtained additional law degrees at Dalhousie Law School in his hometown of Halifax, Nova Scotia, the University of Toronto (specializing in Canadian legal history), and finally Harvard Law School (specializing in American legal history), where he was Associate Editor of the Harvard International Law Journal. Hibbitts’ innovative use of multimedia presentations, role-playing, and other creative teaching techniques has earned him the Pitt law students’ Excellence-in-Teaching Award, and the University-wide Chancellor’s Distinguished Teaching Award. From 1996-2000 he was Pitt Law’s Associate Dean for Communications and Information Technology.
Sigall Horovitz is currently completing a Ph.D. in Law at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. She also heads the Transitional Justice Project of the Hebrew University’s Minerva Center for Human Rights. Sigall’s doctoral research assesses the effectiveness of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL) in achieving their goal of promoting national reconciliation in their target countries. Previously, she worked for three years as a legal adviser to the President of the ICTR in Arusha, Tanzania, and served for a year with the Office of the Prosecutor at the SCSL. Sigall completed her LL.M. (with honors) at Columbia University in 2003.
Charles Jalloh is currently an Assistant Professor at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, where he also holds affiliate faculty appointments at the Ford Institute for Human Security in Pitt’s Graduate School of Public and International Affairs and the African Studies Program. Convener of the first conference to assess the legacy of the SCSL to Africa and the international community, he studied law at McGill University and earned a Master’s in International Human Rights Law at Oxford University where he graduated with distinction and was also a Chevening Scholar. Called to the Bar in June 2004, he has been a Legal Counsel in the Crimes Against Humanity and War Crimes Section, Canadian Department of Justice; the Legal Advisor to the Office of the Principal Defender, Special Court for Sierra Leone, including as court-appointed interim counsel to former Liberian President Charles Taylor; and an Associate Legal Officer in the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. In summer 2010, he was a Visiting Scholar at the Institute of International and Comparative Law in Africa at the University of Pretoria and a Visiting Professional at the International Criminal Court. He is the Founding Editor-in-Chief of the interdisciplinary African Journal of Legal Studies and has published widely in leading peer-reviewed journals, in addition to giving many invited lectures in the United States, Europe and Africa. A frequent consultant on international law issues, he is a member of the American Society of International Law, where he is currently an elected Co-Chair of the International Criminal Law Interest Group; a member of the American Society of Comparative Law; and the Advisory Board for the War Crimes Committee of the International Bar Association.
Wayne Jordash specializes in international and humanitarian law, international criminal and human rights law and related transitional justice issues. He has represented individuals in the U.K., at the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda (ICTR) and the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL). Clients have included a mayor (Baglishema) and a prominent businessman (Bagaragaza) and the leader of the Sierra Leonean Revolutionary United Front (RUF) (Sesay). He acted as a consultant at the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia (ECCC) advising on international law issues relevant to the defense of former Khmer Rouge members of the Pol Pot regime, including the deputy to Pol Pot (Nuon Chea) and the former Minister of Foreign Affairs, Khieu Samphan. Currently Wayne is lead counsel at the ICTY defending Jovica Stanišić, the first intelligence chief to be tried by an international criminal tribunal. He is acting as a consultant on the appeal in the case The Prosecutor v. Innocent Sagahutu convicted in 2011 at the ICTR for the crime of killing UN peacekeepers at the outset of the 1994 Rwandan genocide. He is also a consultant to the Cambodian Centre for Human Rights, advising on a range of international, criminal and human rights law issues for the NGO that works to promote democracy and human rights throughout Cambodia. He has published widely in international journals and textbooks.
In 1985, Joseph Kamara started his studies at the Faculty of Law, Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone. He graduated with a Bachelor of Laws with honors, subsequently called and admitted to the Sierra Leone Bar in 1990. From 1990-1997, he was employed with the Law Officer’s Department where he served in the Office of the Director of Public Prosecution as prosecutor. In 2000, he graduated from the Southern Methodist University with an LL.M. in International Comparative Law, specializing in International Business Transactions. In January 2004, he joined the Special Court for Sierra Leone, and a year later given the task to lead the Civil Defense Forces Prosecution Team. He was appointed by the Government of Sierra Leone to hold the position of Deputy Prosecutor and was later Acting Chief Prosecutor, the first Sierra Leonean to hold those offices. At the Office of the Prosecutor in the SCSL, he witnessed the recognition of the crime of conscripting children and forcing them to participate in hostilities, and assisted in securing convictions against the accused persons. In July of 2009, he was elected as President of the Sierra Leone Bar Association. In April 2010, Mr. Kamara was elected First Vice President of the West African Bar Association. He was appointed Commissioner heading the Sierra Leone Anti-Corruption Commission, holding an appointment by President Ernest Koroma of Sierra Leone.
Sara Kendall is currently based in The Hague at Leiden University’s Grotius Centre for International Legal Studies. She received a Ph.D. from the University of California at Berkeley, where her dissertation research examined the politics and jurisdiction of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Her fieldwork was supported by Berkeley’s War Crimes Studies Center, and it included monitoring and weekly reporting on trial proceedings for all four of the Court's cases. She has co-authored publications for the War Crimes Studies Center assessing the practice and jurisprudence of the Special Court for Sierra Leone in addition to an article on the Court’s voluntary funding structure published in the Leiden Journal of International Law. She is currently undertaking fieldwork for a multi-year research project assessing the International Criminal Court's interventions in Uganda, Kenya, and the Democratic Republic of Congo.
Jules Lobel is a Professor and the Bessie McKee Wathour Endowed Chair at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. He has co-authored the award winning book, Less Safe, Less Free: Why America is Losing the War on Terror (2007) with Professor David Cole, which won the first Roy C. Palmer Civil Liberties Prize for exemplary scholarship exploring the tension between civil liberties and national security. Lobel is the recipient of the University of Pittsburgh Chancellor’s Distinguished Public Service Award (2002), and the Chancellor’s Distinguished Teaching Award (1993). In 2006, he received the Allegheny County Bar Foundation’s Career Achievement Award for Pro Bono Service. Professor Lobel has also testified on various occasions before Congressional Committees, most recently on the issue of the Constitutional allocation of war powers before a subcommittee of the House of Representatives Foreign Affairs Committee. He advised the Nicaraguan government on the development of its constitution, and has also advised the Burundi government on constitutional law issues. He has participated in various Human Rights delegations abroad, including being named the sole U.S. participant in a delegation consisting of prominent European former diplomats and human rights scholars to Israel.
Dr. Alhagi Marong is Legal Advisor and Deputy Head of the Office of Legal Affairs, at the United Nations Assistance Mission (UNAMA) in Kabul, Afghanistan. Before joining UNAMA, he worked as a Legal Officer at the Chambers Support Section of the UN International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda, and as Senior Legal Officer at the Appeals Chamber of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Earlier in his career, Alhagi served as State Counsel at the Attorney-General’s Chambers and Ministry of Justice in The Gambia, taught international law at the American University of Armenia in Yerevan, and served as Staff Attorney and Co-Director for Africa Programs at the Environmental Law Institute in Washington, D.C. Marong obtained his Bachelor of Laws (LL.B. Hons) degree at Fourah Bay College, University of Sierra Leone, before proceeding to McGill University in Montreal, Canada where he graduated with a Master of Laws (LL.M. with distinction) in 1997; and a Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L) in international law (2003). He was called to the Bar in 1993.
Simon M. Meisenberg is currently seconded by a German government organization (Gesellschaft für Internationale Zusammenarbeit) as Legal Advisor to the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia and was formerly Senior Legal Officer at the Special Court for Sierra Leone. He joined the SCSL in January 2005, following a previous interval in 2003, and assisted Trial Chamber I and II on the trials and judgments in Prosecutor v. Brima, Kamara and Kanu, Prosecutor v. Sesay, Kallon and Gbao and Prosecutor v. Charles Taylor. Before joining the SCSL, he worked as a legal assistant on a Defense Team at the International Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia and in a Trial Chamber at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. He is associated with the Institute for International Law of Peace and Armed Conflict at the Ruhr-University of Bochum, Germany. He is a member of the German Working Group for International Criminal Law; the UN Association of Germany; the European Society of International Law, and the African Law Association. He studied Law at the Universities in Trier, Bonn (Germany) and Lausanne (Switzerland) and is a qualified lawyer, holding the First and Second Legal State Examination, which qualify him for all judicial posts in Germany.
Dr. Godfrey Musila is Director at the African Center for International Legal and Policy Research (CILPRA), a think tank based in Nairobi. He is an advisor on international law to the Attorney General and the State Law Office in Kenya. He previously served as Senior Lecturer (International Law) at the Kenyatta University School of Law and Director of Research at the Kenyan Truth Justice and Reconciliation Commission. Previously, he worked and lectured in South Africa. Musila holds a Ph.D. in International Criminal Law and Justice (Witwatersrand, Johannesburg). He has expertise on international (criminal) law, human rights, international institutions and transitional justice in Africa. He has written, published and advised widely on these issues. Two of his books focus on the ICC: Between Rhetoric and Action: The Work of the ICC in The DRC: Politics, Processes and Practice (ISS, 2009) and; Rethinking International Criminal Justice: Restorative Justice and the Rights of Victims in the International Criminal Court (Lap Lambert, 2010). He also co-edited and contributed to the book on options for justice in Kenya titled Addressing Impunity and Options for Justice in Kenya: Issues and Debates (ICJ, 2009).
Vincent O. Nmehielle holds a Bachelor of Laws with Honors (LL.B., Hons) Degree from the Rivers State University of Science & Technology, Port Harcourt, Nigeria; a Barrister-at-Law (BL) Professional Qualification from the Council of Legal Education of Nigeria; a Master of Laws (LL.M.) Degree (with Distinction) in International Law from the University of Notre Dame, in the USA; and a Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) Degree in International & Comparative Law from the George Washington University in Washington, DC. He is a Barrister and Solicitor of the Supreme Court of Nigeria. Professor Nmehielle is currently the Head of the Wits Programme in Law, Justice and Development in Africa at the University of the Witwatersrand (Wits) School of Law, Johannesburg, South Africa where he has taught since February 2002. He held the Bram Fischer Professor and Chair of Human Rights Law at the Mandela Institute of Wits Law School from 2002-2004. Professor Nmehielle served as the Principal Defender of the Special Court for Sierra Leone in Freetown, Sierra Leone. He returned to Wits in June 2008. Prior to Wits, Professor Nmehielle served as an International Rule of Law Fellow at the George Washington University School of Law from 1997-2000.
Noah Novogrodsky is an Associate Professor at the University of Wyoming College of Law. Professor Novogrodsky teaches International Human Rights Law, Immigration Law and Civil Procedure. He is a Phi Beta Kappa graduate with highest honors from Swarthmore College; he holds a law degree from Yale and an M.Phil. in International Relations from Queens’ College at Cambridge University, where he won the Daniel Vincent Prize for the best thesis on the Middle East. After law school, Novogrodsky served as law clerk to the Honorable Nancy Gertner of the U.S. District Court for the District of Massachusetts. As a Robert L. Bernstein Fellow in International Human Rights in Asmara, Eritrea, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia and Cape Town, South Africa; as a litigation associate at the firm of Howard, Rice, Nemerovski, Canady, Falk & Rabkin in San Francisco; and as the founding director of the International Human Rights Clinic at the University of Toronto Faculty of Law. Professor Novogrodsky has also been a Visiting Professor at Georgetown University Law Center and the University of Connecticut School of Law Professor Novogrodsky’s scholarship is focused on the global HIV/AIDS pandemic and international criminal justice.
Professor Valerie Oosterveld joined the University of Western Ontario Faculty of Law (Canada) in 2005, where she teaches courses in International Criminal Law, International Human Rights Law, International Organizations and Public International Law. Before joining Western Law, Valerie served in the Legal Affairs Bureau of Canada’s Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. In this role, she provided legal advice on international criminal accountability for genocide, crimes against humanity and war crimes, especially with respect to the International Criminal Court (ICC), the Special Court for Sierra Leone (SCSL), the International Criminal Tribunals for the Former Yugoslavia and Rwanda, and other transitional justice mechanisms. During Canada’s Security Council tenure in 1999-2000, she was deeply involved in the discussions surrounding the creation of the SCSL and its Management Committee. She was a member of the Canadian delegation to the ICC negotiations, subsequent Assembly of States Parties and the 2010 Review Conference of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. Her research and writing focus on gender issues within international criminal justice and on the closure of the time-limited criminal tribunals, including the Special Court for Sierra Leone.
Diane Orentlicher, Professor of International Law at American University, has been described by the Washington Diplomat as “one of the world’s leading authorities on human rights law and war crimes tribunals.” She has lectured and published widely on issues of transitional justice, international criminal law and other areas of public international law, and has testified before the United States Senate and House on a range of issues relating to both domestic human rights laws and U.S. foreign policy. Professor Orentlicher has served in various public positions, including as the Deputy for War Crimes Issues in the U.S. Department of State (2009-2011); UN Independent Expert on Combating Impunity (on appointment by the UN Secretary-General) and Special Advisor to the High Commissioner on National Minorities of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe. Professor Orentlicher is a commentator on television and in the print media on issues relating to war crimes trials and other issues of transitional justice. She has appeared on various news programs on NBC, ABC, BBC, CNN, NPR, PBS, MSNBC and other broadcast stations, and has published opinion pieces and been quoted in the New York Times, the Washington Post, the International Herald Tribune and other papers.
Before his retirement in 2002, Peter Penfold was a member of the British Diplomatic Service for 38 years, spending time in Africa and the Caribbean, witnessing several coups, insurrections, civil wars, kidnappings and hurricanes. Prior to his appointment in Sierra Leone he was the Governor of the British Virgin Islands and the British Government’s Adviser on drugs trafficking in the Caribbean. Her Majesty The Queen awarded him the CMG (1995) and OBE (1986). During his time as the British High Commissioner to Sierra Leone (1997-2000), he was closely identified with the country’s efforts to embrace democracy and achieve stability and lasting peace. His experiences brought him into face to face negotiations with the rebels and contact with local and international humanitarian and emergency agencies. He worked closely with the UN, the international community and British and African military forces. In recognition of his efforts he was appointed a Paramount Chief by the Sierra Leone people and made a Freeman of the city of Freetown. He has remained involved with Sierra Leone, visiting the country and promoting assistance for the disabled. He appeared before the Special Court for Sierra Leone as a defense witness on behalf of Chief Sam Hinga Norman.
Robert Petit was called to the Bar in 1988 and started his legal career as a Crown Prosecutor in Montreal, Canada for eight years eventually focusing on organized criminality and complex cases. He began his career first as a Legal Officer in the Office of the Prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda. Subsequently between 1999 and 2004, he was a Regional Legal Advisor for the UN Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo, a Prosecutor for the Serious Crimes Unit of the UN Missions of Support to East Timor, and a Senior Trial Attorney with the Office of the Prosecutor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. In 2006, he was named by the UN as International Co-Prosecutor of the Extraordinary Chambers in the Courts of Cambodia, a position he held until September 2009. He returned to Canada to his current position as Counsel and Team Leader with the War Crimes Section of Canada’s Federal Department of Justice. He is the 2009 recipient of the Frederick K Cox International Humanitarian Award for Advancing Global Justice. In 2011, he was identified by an international search committee as one of four candidates for the position of Prosecutor of the ICC.
Stephen Rapp of Iowa is Ambassador-at-Large, heading the Office of Global Criminal Justice in the US Department of State. He was appointed by President Obama, confirmed by the Senate, and assumed his duties on September 8, 2009. Prior to his appointment, Ambassador Rapp served as Prosecutor of the Special Court for Sierra Leone beginning in January 2007, responsible for the prosecutions of, among others, former Liberian President Charles Taylor. During his tenure in Sierra Leone, his office won the first convictions in history for recruitment and use of child soldiers and for sexual slavery and forced marriage as crimes under international humanitarian law. From 2001 to 2007 Ambassador Rapp served as Senior Trial Attorney and Chief of Prosecutions at the International Criminal Tribunal for Rwanda where he personally led the prosecution in the media trial, which resulted in the first convictions for incitement to commit genocide against leaders of the mass media. From 1993 to 2001 he was the United States Attorney for the Northern District of Iowa.
D. Wes Rist is an Adjunct Professor of Law and Assistant Director of the Center for International Legal Education at the University of Pittsburgh School of Law. He earned an LL.M. with Distinction in International Human Rights Law from the University of the West of England Bristol Law School.
Professor Leila Sadat is the Henry H. Oberschelp Professor of Law at Washington University School of Law and Director of the Whitney R. Harris World Law Institute. She was the Alexis de Tocqueville Distinguished Fulbright Chair at the University of Cergy-Pontoise in Paris. Prof. Sadat is the Director of the Crimes Against Humanity Initiative, a multi-year project to study the problem of crimes against humanity and draft a comprehensive convention addressing their punishment and prevention. She was a delegate to the UN Preparatory Committee and to the 1998 Diplomatic Conference in Rome which established the ICC, represented the government of Timor-Leste at the 8th Session of the Assembly of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the ICC, and served as a delegate for the International Law Association. She currently serves as Vice-President of the International Law Association (American Branch) and the International Association of Penal Law (AIDP), and is a member of the American Law Institute. Sadat received her B.A. from Douglass College, her J.D. from Tulane Law School (summa cum laude) and holds graduate degrees from Columbia University School of Law (LL.M., summa cum laude) and the University of Paris I – Sorbonne (diplôme d’études approfondies).
Dr. Shakiratu Sanusi is currently a Human Rights Officer with the Commonwealth Secretariat. She is a qualified solicitor (currently non-practicing) with experience in academia, legal practice, and the civil society sector. She worked with a number of NGOs dealing with human rights issues from an international and African regional perspective prior to qualifying as a solicitor in the U.K. In her work as a solicitor, she specialized in civil liberties cases, particularly actions against the police, bringing claimant proceedings against public authorities alleging discrimination, serious wrongdoing, abuse of position or power and/or significant breaches of human rights as well as housing law and housing related public law. At the SCSL, she worked as Legal Taxing Officer in the Office of the Principal Defender and subsequently as Legal Advisor to the Registrar and as the Senior Legal Advisor to the Registrar. She holds a Ph.D. in international human rights law from the London School of Economics and Political Science with a focus on women’s rights; in particular, the omission of race and culture from feminist approaches to international human rights law from an African perspective, her area of special interest.
Alpha Sesay is the Open Society Justice Initiative’s Legal Officer for International Justice based in The Hague. From the start of the Chares Taylor trial in The Hague, Sesay has monitored the proceedings on a fulltime basis for the OSJI, writing and posting daily summaries and analysis on the Charles Taylor trial monitoring blog (www.charlestaylortrial.org), and working with civil society and the media in Sierra Leone and Liberia to enhance their involvement in the work of the Special Court for Sierra Leone. He previously lectured human rights at the University of Sierra Leone, worked with the Special Court for Sierra Leone, with Human Rights Watch in New York and co-founded and served as National Director of the Sierra Leone Court Monitoring Program. Sesay also co-founded and served as President of the Fourah Bay College Human Rights Clinic. He is a Sierra Leonean human rights practitioner with an LL.B. Honors from the University of Sierra Leone and an LL.M. in International Human Rights Law from the University of Notre Dame.
Taylor Seybolt is an Assistant Professor of International Affairs at the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs, University of Pittsburgh. He is the author of Humanitarian Military Intervention: the Conditions for Success and Failure (Oxford, 2007) and co-editor of Counting Civilian Casualties: an Introduction to Recording and Estimating Nonmilitary Deaths in Conflict (Oxford, forthcoming). His current research seeks to understand the process of violence that can lead to mass killing of civilians, in order to identify ways to prevent genocide. Seybolt was the Director of the Ford Institute for Human Security at the University of Pittsburgh, 2009-2011. From 2002 to 2008, he was a Senior Program Officer at the United States Institute of Peace in Washington, DC, where he established grant-making programs in Nigeria and Sudan. He was an advisor to the Genocide Prevention Task Force, co-chaired by Madeleine Albright and William Cohen. From 1999 to 2002, Seybolt was Leader of the Conflicts and Peace Enforcement Project at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI) in Sweden. He was both a Pre-doctoral and Post-doctoral Fellow at the Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs at Harvard’s Kennedy School of Government. He received his Ph.D. in political science from MIT.
Sandesh Sivakumaran is a lecturer at the School of Law, and member of the Human Rights Law Centre, University of Nottingham. He has worked at the International Court of Justice, the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and the Special Court for Sierra Leone. Sandesh has acted as an expert or advisor for a number of States, UN entities, and NGOs. He is the author of The Law of Non-International Armed Conflict (OUP, 2012) and co-editor of International Human Rights Law (OUP, 2010). For his research, he has been awarded the Journal of International Criminal Justice Giorgio La Pira Prize and the Antonio Cassese Prize for International Criminal Law Studies.
Alison Smith is the Legal Counsel and Coordinator of the International Criminal Justice Program for No Peace Without Justice, having formerly worked as the Country Director in Sierra Leone for No Peace Without Justice. In addition, she served as the chief legal adviser to the Vice President of Sierra Leone on the Special Court and international humanitarian law. She has acted as international legal adviser to a number of clients including the Tibetan Government in Exile, Kosovar politicians and has worked with No Peace Without Justice and UNICEF on the production of a book on international criminal law and children. Since 2000, she has worked as a legal adviser to the government of Thailand during the UN Preparatory Commissions for the establishment of an International Criminal Court and during the first sessions of the Assembly of States Parties. Ms. Smith worked in Kosovo as an international legal officer for the International Crisis Group’s Humanitarian Law Documentation Project. Prior to that, she was a researcher at the Kennedy School of Government’s Carr Centre for Human Rights Policy at Harvard University. Ms. Smith is an Australian barrister and holds a Masters Degree in International Law from the Australian National University.
Melinda Taylor is presently working as Counsel/Deputy Head of the ICC Office of Public Counsel for the Defence (OPCD), International Criminal Court. Ms. Taylor established the OPCD in April 2006, and pending the recruitment of the Principal Counsel in January 2007, created and implemented its policies and mandate. Previously, Ms. Taylor has worked as a defence consultant at the Defence Office for the War Crimes Court in Bosnia and Herzegovina, and on defence cases before the ICTY and ICTR. Ms. Taylor has also worked as a legal officer for the UN Mission in Kosovo, and in the Office of Legal Aid and Detention at the ICTY. She is admitted to practice before the New York Bar.
Jenia Turner is an Associate Professor at Southern Methodist University Dedman School of Law, where she teaches criminal procedure, comparative criminal procedure, international criminal law, and international organizations. Before joining SMU, Professor Turner served as a Bigelow Fellow at the University of Chicago Law School, where she taught legal research and writing and comparative criminal procedure. Professor Turner attended law school at Yale, where she was a Coker Fellow and articles editor for the Yale Law Journal and the Yale Journal of International Law. After her first year of law school, she was a summer clerk at the Appeals Chamber of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, and the following summer, she worked at the Federal Public Defender’s Office in Houston and the New York and Paris offices of Debevoise & Plimpton. She recently completed a textbook exploring plea-bargaining from a comparative perspective and is working on an article about legal ethics for international prosecutors. Professor Turner is a Council Member of the International Law Section of the State Bar of Texas. She also serves as a member of the International Expert Framework, which is a group of scholars and practitioners working to develop principles of international criminal procedure.
Harmen van der Wilt is a Professor of International Law at the Amsterdam School of Law, University of Amsterdam. His research interests lie in the concepts of criminal responsibility in International Criminal Law; European arrest warrant; ICC: principle of complementarity; harmonization of criminal law in Europe; criminal procedure of International Criminal Tribunals; legal reaction to terrorism; cooperation between states and international criminal tribunals. Van der Wilt has been involved in professional training programs for judiciary and public prosecutors in Addis Ababa and training programs for young staff-members of Lobatchevski University of Nijni Novgorod. He has been a member of the Research Council of an EU-project on the European Arrest Warrant and is currently a member of the Steering Committee of the EU-project DOMAC (Impact of International Procedures on Domestic Criminal Procedures in Mass Atrocity Cases). In 1997 he was awarded by the Faculty of Law as ‘best teacher of the year’ and in 1999 he received the Edmond Hustinx-price for excellent research. One of his latest publications is Universal jurisdiction under attack: an assessment of the African misgivings of international criminal justice as administered by Western states, Journal of International Criminal Justice 9 (2011), 1043-1066.
Penelope Van Tuyl is the Deputy Director of the Berkeley War Crimes Studies Center (WCSC) and the Asian International Justice Initiative (AIJI). She has worked closely with Professor David Cohen since 2006 on human rights and rule of law projects in Southeast Asia, West Africa, and Europe, including serving as an independent trial monitor at the Special Court for Sierra Leone during the case against the RUF accused. An American lawyer, Penelope received her J.D. from University of California, Berkeley School of Law, and is admitted to practice in the state of California. As Deputy Director, Penelope currently oversees the WCSC’s trial monitoring programs, the “Virtual Tribunal” project, and AIJI’s annual Summer Institute in International Humanitarian Law and Human Rights. She has authored and edited numerous reports and articles on international criminal law and procedure. She also teaches a course on international criminal law and transitional justice at Berkeley. Her research interests touch on substantive, procedural, and administrative aspects of international criminal practice; in particular, she focuses on Joint Criminal Enterprise (JCE) liability, standards of pleading in international courts, and the institutional accountability mechanisms that are meant to support the effective and efficient administration of justice.