Kevin Ashley

Professor of Law


Professor Kevin D. Ashley is an expert on computer modeling of legal reasoning and cyberspace legal issues. In 2002 he was selected as a Fellow of the American Association of Artificial Intelligence “for significant contributions in computationally modeling case-based and analogical reasoning in law and practical ethics.” He has reported his research in conference proceedings of the American Association for Artificial Intelligence, the International Association for Artificial Intelligence and Law, and the Foundation for Legal Knowledge Systems (JURIX). He has also published in journals such as Jurimetrics, the International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, and Artificial Intelligence and Law, of which he is a co-editor in chief. Professor Ashley has been a principal investigator of a number of National Science Foundation grants to study reasoning with cases in law and professional ethics. He is also the author of Modeling Legal Argument: Reasoning with Cases and Hypotheticals (MIT Press/Bradford Books, 1990) and of Artificial Intelligence and Legal Analytics: New Tools for Law Practice in the Digital Age (Cambridge University Press, 2017).

A former National Science Foundation Presidential Young Investigator, Professor Ashley has been a visiting scientist at the IBM Thomas J. Watson Research Center, a Senior Visiting Fellow at the Institute for Advanced Studies of the University of Bologna where he is a frequent visiting professor of the Faculty of Law, and a former President of the International Association of Artificial Intelligence and Law.

In addition to his appointment at the School of Law, Professor Ashley is a senior scientist at the Learning Research and Development Center, an adjunct professor of computer science, and a faculty member of the Graduate Program in Intelligent Systems of the University of Pittsburgh.

Key/Recent Publications


  • Aleven, V., Ashley, K., Lynch, C., & Pinkwart, N. (Eds.), Proceedings of the Workshop on Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Ill-Defined Domains at the 9th International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems. (2008). Montreal, Canada. Available at:
  • Kevin D. Ashley, M. Ikeda & T-W Chan (eds.), Intelligent Tutoring Systems. Proceedings from 8th International Conference, ITS 2006 Taiwan (Springer June 2006).
  • Kevin D. Ashley & D. G. Bridge (eds.), Case-Based Reasoning Research and Development. Proceedings from 5th International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning (Springer 2003).

Book Chapters

  • With Lynch, C.,  Pinkwart, N., & Aleven, V. Ill-Defined Domains and Adaptive Tutoring Technologies, (In-Press). to appear in Durlach, P. & Lesgold, A. M (Eds.),  Adaptive Technologies for Training and Education. Cambridge University Press.
  • With Lynch, C.,  Instructional Explanations in a Legal Classroom: Are Students Argument Diagrams of Hypothetical Reasoning Diagnostic?,  in Stein, M.K., & Kucan, L. (Eds.) Instructional Explanations in the Disciplines New York: Springer, 2010.
  • The Case-Based Reasoning Approach: Ontologies for Analogical Legal Argument ,  in  Approaches to Legal Ontologies, M. Sartor, P. Casanovas, M. Biasotti, and M. Barrera, eds., New York: Springer, 2011.


  • Kevin Ashley and I. Goldin, Computer-Supported Peer Review in a Law School Context, U. of Pittsburgh Legal Studies Research Paper Series No. 2012-24, 2012. Available on SSRN.
  • Peering Inside Peer Review with Bayesian ModelsArtificial Intelligence in Education: The Fifteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education (with Goldin, I.) (2011).
  • Facilitating Case Comparison Using Value Judgments and Intermediate Legal ConceptsProceedings of the Conference. Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (with Grabmair, M.) (2011).
  • Can Temporal Representation and Reasoning Make a Difference in Automated Legal Reasoning? Lessons from an AI-based Ethical ReasonerProceedings of the Conference. Thirteenth International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Law (with McLaren, B.M.) (2011).
  • Toward AI-enhanced Computer-supported Peer Review in Legal Education, in Atkinson K.M., editor. Legal Knowledge and Information Systems, Jurix 2011: The 24th Annual Conference, (2011), Vienna, Austria, Amsterdam: IOS Press, (with Goldin, I.) (2011).
  • Toward Extracting Information from Public Health Statutes using Text Classification and Machine LearningLegal Knowledge and Information Systems, Jurix 2011: The 24th Annual Conference, (2011), Vienna, Austria Amsterdam: IOS Press, (with Grabmair, M.) (2011).
  • Kevin Ashley and Will Bridewell, Emerging AI & Law approaches to automating analysis and retrieval of electronically stored information in discovery proceedings, 18 Artificial Intelligence and Law 311 (2010).
  • Kevin Ashley, I. Goldin and R. Pinkus, Validity and Reliability of an Instrument for Assessing Case Analyses in Bioengineering Ethics Education, Science and Engineering Ethics (forthcoming).
  • Kevin Ashley, N. Pinkwart, C. Lynch and V. Aleven, Formative Evaluations Studies of an Intelligent Tutoring System for Making Legal Arguments with Hypotheticals. 19 International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education. (2009).
  • Teaching a Process Model of Legal Argument with Hypotheticals, 17 Journal of Artificial Intelligence and Law 321 (2009).
  • K. D. Ashley and S. Brüninghaus, Automatically Classifying Case Texts and Predicting Outcomes, 17 Artificial Intelligence and Law 125 (2009).
  • Kevin Ashley, N. Pinkwart, V. Aleven and C. Lynch, Adaptive Rückmeldungen im intelligenten Tutorensystem LARGO, 5 elearning and education (online journal) (2009).
  • Kevin D. Ashley, Comment on Lowrance's Graphical Manipulation of Evidence in Structured Arguments Law, 6 Probability & Risk 241, (2007).
  • Kevin D. Ashley & S. Brüninghaus, Computer Models for Legal Prediction, 46 Jurimetrics J. 309 (2006).
  • Kevin D. Ashley, Capturing the Dialectic Between Principles and Cases, 44 Jurimetrics J. 229 (2004).
  • Kevin D. Ashley et al., Law, Learning and Representation, 150 Artificial Intelligence 17 (2003).
  • Kevin D. Ashley et al., Case-Based Reasoning and Law, 20 Knowledge Engineering Review, 293 (2005).
  • Kevin D. Ashley, Hypothesis Formation and Testing in Legal Argument in International Congress of Comparative Cultures and Legal Systems Of The Instituto De Investigaciones Juridicas Second International Meeting On Artificial Intelligence And Law, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (April 2006).
  • Kevin D. Ashley, V. Aleven & C. Lynch, Teaching Creative Legal Reasoning with Examples from Supreme Court Oral Arguments in Proceedings of the ICAIL-05 Workshop on Artificial Intelligence and Legal Education 47, Bologna (2005).
  • V. Aleven & Kevin D. Ashley, Toward Supporting Hypothesis Formation and Testing in an Interpretive Domain in Proceedings Of The Twelfth International Conference On Artificial Intelligence In Education, Amsterdam (July 2005).
  • Kevin D. Ashley, Case-Based Models of Legal Reasoning in a Civil Law Context for International Congress of Comparative Cultures and Legal Systems of The Instituto De Investigaciones Juridicas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City, (February 2004).
  • Kevin D. Ashley, Exploring an Example of Creative Legal Problem Solving: Inventing the NOW Account for the Special Workshop of the IVR World Congress 2003 on Creativity In Legal Problem Solving, Lund Sweden (August 2003).


  • Presenter, “Applying Artificial Intelligence to Law: Lessons Learned and Future Directions,” at Masaryk Univ. Faculty of Law, Czech Republic, October 2011.
  • Presenter, “Research Progress in Artificial Intelligence and Law: An Intellectual Survey,” Faculty of Law, Univ. of Bologna, Bologna, Italy, October- November 2011.
  • Presenter, “Toward AI-enhanced Computer-supported Peer Review in Legal Education,” Jurix 2011: The 24th Annual Conference, Vienna, Austria December 2011.
  • Presenter, “Toward Teaching Writing and Argumentation with AI-Supported Peer Review,” Center for e-Learning Technology, Saarland Univ. and German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence, Saarbrücken, Germany, May 2012. 

Other Activities

  • Co-Editor-in-Chief, Artificial Intelligence and Law.
  • Panelist, National Science Foundation.
  • Program Committee, International Conference on Case-Based Reasoning.
  • Senior Program Committee, Intelligent Tutoring Systems 2012.
  • Senior Program Committee Member, Artificial Intelligence in Education 2011.
  • Program Committee, The 24th International Conference on Legal Knowledge and Information Systems.
  • Program Committee, Fourth International Conference on Computational Models of Argument. 


Programs & Courses